Thursday, May 21, 2020

Benefits Of Low Salaries For Early Childhood Education

In the ever-growing society, the necessity of early childhood education has increased as research indicated all the beneficiary effects on the child’s developmental learning capacity in their early years. However, low salaries negatively affect many early childhood educators who dedicated time and effort to continue higher education and trainings to ensure the best practices for the children. With the efforts to raise salaries for early childhood teachers, many professionals and educators in the field voiced their opinion about the raises, rights and indication of the respect that has been misplaced. Through advocacy in the community, there has been positive and successful movements that has improved the working conditions and wage for†¦show more content†¦18). As more and more educators become aware of the affects to the teachers as well as the children, the states have been working together to improve and develop early educator competencies that provides adequate ed ucation and pay. Notably, education is an essential tool to ensure children learn in a high-quality environment where the teachers have the credentials of teaching age-appropriate curriculum while enhancing the children learning capacity to the next level. In fact, according to Demma (2010), â€Å"A growing body of child development research, neuroscience, and program evaluation demonstrates that high-quality early childhood care and education programs improve school readiness and later outcomes for young children† (p. 1). As facts layout the importance of early years of education, it is right to claim that early childhood educators should be able to get a higher pay just like the Kindergarten teachers. With successful advocacy in the community, it has brought a portion of light to the field in which states are moving for higher pay for higher education. It is difficult to say that higher education provides better opportunities for higher pay in the field of early childhood education. The reason being, education is used as a merit for a higher chance of getting employed rather than higher pay. The foundation of higher education has crumbled as educators areShow MoreRelatedEarly Childhood Education For Children From Low Income Households Essay1493 Words   |  6 Pages Early Childhood Education Early Childhood Educators work in the subset of education that focuses on the infant through preschool age group. Early Childhood Education creates a significant difference in a child development and learning abilities. There is a variety of avenues one can explore for their child’s pre-education. These specific programs are known by several different names, two of which are preschool and pre-K. Educators can work in many different programs with in churches, public schoolsRead MoreOrganization, Professional Leadership For The Childcare Program Of Your Design Essay947 Words   |  4 PagesECDE 2021 Organization Professional Leadership in Early Childhood Programs Creating a Center (3 parts – 60 total points) We as a class we will work together to discover the true cost of care for the childcare program of your design. You are free to imagine many of the characteristics you would like. Please use information from class as well as your text to help you with this assignment. We will move through this process step by step. PART I – (25 points) Answer the following questions: AllRead MoreThe State Of Georgia Have Quality Early Childhood Education1447 Words   |  6 Pages†¢ Purpose The purpose of this policy is to ensure that all children in the state of Georgia have quality Early Childhood Programs that are accessible, affordable, comprehensive, and sustainable. Crafting strategic and thoughtful policy in the forefront will ensure the academic achievement, social development and future success of the state’s youth. †¢ Scope This policy will aim to address the social, academic and general health needs of all children from birth to the age of 8 years in the state ofRead MoreThe Funding On First Nations Reserves1616 Words   |  7 PagesThe funding on First Nations reserves has not kept up with the needs of a growing population. Teachers salaries and school supplies has been a consequence of the funding shortfall on First Nations reserves. Annual expenditure increases is subject to a two percent cap for First Nations schools (Assembly of First Nations, 2012, para. 11). If teacher’s salaries are being impacted on reserve, many teachers may need to resort to working at a provincial school system where they get paid more. It is importantRead MoreHuman History Literacy Rates Have Continued Essay1699 Words   |  7 Pageshave continued to hike. Children now attend school than at any other point in history. Although nations have made immense progress, many are still far from reaching the universal goals of education. The importance of early education cannot be emphasized enough. As famous scholars had noted in human history, education is the precondition for success and unconstrained prospects. Educated citizens are the foundation for a nation’s sustainable economic and social development (Park 23). According to a studyRead MoreEssay On California State Preschool Program1316 Words   |  6 Pagescounties in the U.S.), the CSPP only manages to achieve six out of the ten outcomes for preschool effectiveness as outlined by the National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER). In addition, the newly established California Transitional Kindergarten program achieves a mere two out of ten, which ranks it as one of the lowest early education programs in the entire country. The CSPP achieves fewer outcomes than much (on average) poorer states such as Alabama and North Carolina. This may seemRead More Head Start Essay example1667 Words   |  7 PagesHead Start Head Start and Early Head Start are comprehensive child development programs which serve children from birth to age five, pregnant woman and their extended families. They are child-focused programs that have the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families. . These programs try to prepare young children intellectually, socially, emotionally and physically for their future educational and social endeavors. ( U.S. Department of Health and HumanRead MoreChildhood Education : An Important Part Of The Infrastructure For Economic Development870 Words   |  4 Pagescountry can make (Early Childhood Development, nd.). Having a good foundation can help contribute to the financial and social wealth of their societies. These children have higher employment and earning more, have better health, lower levels of welfare dependency and crime rates than those who do not have these early opportunities. It may help address inequality, help educate childre n so they can break the cycle of poverty giving next generation a better start. Early childhood education helps form theRead MoreRelationship Between Individual Wage And Job Satisfaction Essay1038 Words   |  5 Pageswork environment variables, were: staff higher wages, better adult work environments, lower teaching staff turnover, better educated and trained staff, and teacher-child ratio. Despite having higher levels of formal education than the average American worker, childcare staff earned low wages in 1989. Between 1977-1988, childcare staff wages had decreased over 20%; as well, staff turnover almost tripled from 15% in 1977 to 41% in 1988 (Whitebook, et al., 2014). The most important determinant of staffRead MoreElementary Education With Special Education1462 Words   |  6 Pageshave a deeper understanding of children, their families and developmental appropriate practices (Tougaloo College). Transfer students from a junior college can enroll in the Elementary Education: Bachelor of Arts in Education (B.A.E.) undergraduate program. The B.A.E. in Elementary Education with Special Education endorsement is a minimum of 122 semester hour’s program. During the course, teacher candidates are required to observe and teach in particular classroom settings to learn about effective

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Humanistic Theory, Psychodynamic Theory And Cbt - 1373 Words

Here I am going to explain the key characteristics of: Humanistic theory, Psychodynamic theory and CBT. Firstly I am going to talk about what I think the Humanistic theory is, this approach works by providing the client with a better understand of themselves. It helps them to understand their feelings and gives them a chance to explore the option to create personal choices. Humanistic therapy is used for depression, low self-esteem, anxiety, stress, loss etc. It pushes the client to work towards self-awareness and self-realization. Deurzen (2002) says the humanistic approach will always include a through consideration of limitations, realities and consequences. The counsellor shows honesty and openness towards the client making them feel comfortable and even equal. The key characteristics are congruence, genuineness and empathy. The counsellor accepts the client for who they are and is non-judgmental, also using UPR (unconditional positive regard) putting themselves in their clients shoes. Humanistic overall is an approach looking at the client, not only through counselor’s eyes but through the client’s eyes too. The allegation has been made before that the CBT therapy counsellor does not actually have to be aware of the theoretical basis of CBT in order to practice. â€Å"Some may argue that the theory side of CBT may be important for the academic and researcher but hardly for the therapist, who needs to know what works and how to work it. Indeed a hard lineShow MoreRelatedEvaluating the Main Theories of Counselling Essay1695 Words   |  7 Pagesthree main theories of counselling within the module covered this term. The three approaches in discussion are psychodynamics, cognitive behavioural and humanistic. The psychodynamic theory originated from Sigmund Freud, a medical doctor and philosopher (1856 - 1939) founded in the 1900s. Freud developed his ideas whilst working as a psychiatrist in Vienna, collecting information from his patients such as feelings, thoughts and early childhood experiences. The psychodynamic theory focuses onRead MoreEssay about Evaluating the Main Theories of Counseling1932 Words   |  8 Pagesthree main theories of counselling within the module covered this term. The three approaches in discussion are psychodynamics, cognitive behavioural and humanistic. The psychodynamic theory originated from Sigmund Freud, a medical doctor and philosopher (1856 - 1939) founded in the 1900s. Freud developed his ideas whilst working as a psychiatrist in Vienna, collecting information from his patients such as feelings, thoughts and early childhood experiences. The psychodynamic theory focuses onRead MoreDiscuss the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Three Main Theories Covered in This Module.1965 Words   |  8 PagesDiscuss the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Three Main Theories covered in this Module. This essay will attempt to highlight and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the three main theories of counselling within the module covered this term. The three approaches in discussion are psychodynamics, cognitive behavioural and humanistic. The psychodynamic theory originated from Sigmund Freud, a medical doctor and philosopher (1856 - 1939) founded in the 1900s. Freud developed his ideas whilst workingRead MoreThe Humanistic School Of Counselling936 Words   |  4 PagesThe second school of counselling to be discussed is the Humanistic school. This school of counselling evolved in the USA during the 1950’s (McLeod, 2015) and includes a large number of related approaches such as the Person-Centered approach, Existential and Gestalt. Although different in ways, these approaches share a number of goals and core beliefs, key to the humanistic school. Approaches within the humanistic school share the acknowledgement of the counsellor-client relationship and client autonomyRead MoreStrengths And Weaknesses Of Psychology1411 Words   |  6 Pages(McLeod’s 2007) stated that within ‘contemporary psychology’ there are many different approaches used to understand the study of human behaviour, with eac h approach having a different perspective. There may be many theories within a psychological perspective, but they will all have common assumptions on the way we function. As no approached is viewed as right or wrong, they are often just evaluated for their strengths and weaknesses and what they have brought to modern psychology in the understandingRead MoreContrasting Psycodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral and Person-Centered Counseling Theories1732 Words   |  7 Pages2005). Counseling theories are used by counselors as part of their treatment plan for clients. There are many types of theories that counselors can choose from. These theories are usually hosen based on the client needs and what the counselor feel will be most effective. Counselors are not limited to just one theory when it comes to treating their clients. Theories can be used in conjunction with one another to effectively treat clients. Counseling does not just involve theories alone, it in involvesRead Morecompare an d contrast three core theories of counselling2615 Words   |  11 Pagesï » ¿Compare and Contrast the Three Core Theories of Counselling The British Association for Counselling’s Code of Ethics and Practice for Counsellors states that ‘Counselling may be concerned with developmental issues, addressing and resolving specific problems, making decisions, coping with crisis, developing personal insight and knowledge, working through feelings of inner conflict or improving relationships with others’ (BACP Ethical Framework). Throughout this essay I will illustrate the similaritiesRead MoreThe Theory Of The Therapy982 Words   |  4 Pagesthis is not intended to diminish the effectiveness of other available approaches. The final school of counselling to be discussed is the CBT approach; this approach is one of the most popular forms of talk therapy (Jhugroo, 2015). CBT adopts a directive approach and is both problem focused and action orientated. Similar to the PCT in the Humanistic school, CBT focusses on the here and now, and suggests there are no unconscious meanings behind behaviours; in fact, behaviour is governed by the naturalRead MoreCognitive Behavioral Theory and Psychodynamic Theory Essay1840 Words   |  8 Pagesunpack cognitive behavioural theory and psychodynamic theory. This will include the history of each theory and the theorists that discovered and developed both. I am going to link each theory to where they fit in Payne’s Triangle of Social Work as well as compare and contrast each theory. Both Cognitive behavioural theory and psychodynamic theory both support the purposes of social work in which I will cover beneath. This assignment will also include criticisms of both theories as well. CognitiveRead Morecounselling theory essay1690 Words   |  7 PagesSkills Theories Theory Essay Written Introduction In this essay I will describe key elements of Psychodynamic theory, Person-Centred theory and Cognitive-Behavioural theory. I will also identify the key differences between the above theories. I shall also describe how counselling theory underpins the use of counselling skills in practise. I will then end with my conclusion. 1.1 Key elements of psychodynamic theory Dr Sigmud Freud (1856-1939), is the founder of the psychodynamic approach

American Anti Slavery Free Essays

As we saw in the previous lecture, many Americans in the nineteenth century believed that slavery was justified by the Bible. Explain how The American Anti-Slavery Almanac, a well-known abolitionist publication whose authors attacked slavery, tried to discredit the notion that Christianity justified slavery. | 200 words | 50 points. We will write a custom essay sample on American Anti Slavery or any similar topic only for you Order Now Throughout The American Anti-Slavery Almanac, abolitionists wrote that the Christians did many anti-slavery acts. On of the biggest arguments was the â€Å"negro seat† found in churches. On page 21, it states that churches â€Å"publicly deride and blasphemously criticize† this idea of the â€Å"negro seat† in churches. It also states that â€Å"Every church that has a â€Å"negro seat† keeps posted upon its walls a standing criticism on God’s workmanship, a public proclamation of their contempt for it. † The church finds it wrong that many churches have designated seats for negros. â€Å"Why single out certain seats for them and make them sit in them?† On page 37, it states â€Å"According to the Bible, oppression maketh a man mad; but according to the objector, stop oppressing him and yon make him madder! That inflicting wrongs upon a person is calculated to exasperate him against the inflictor, everyone one knows,: and that the way to soothe his exasperation, make him forget his wrongs, and fill him with kind feelings towards you. † This explains that the wrong doings to a slave is against the Bible. God looks at everyone as his brothers and sisters. On Page 38, â€Å"Since robbing a man of his liberty and earnings, makes him your enemy, the first step to be taken in making him your friends, is to stop doing that which made him your enemy. The Bible gives this commonsense direction to all who wish to make others their friends. † As we saw in the previous lecture, many Americans in the nineteenth century believed that slavery was an economic necessity. They argued that its abolishing would ruin the country’s economy. Explain how The American Anti-Slavery Almanac tried to discredit this notion. Throughout The American Anti-Slavery Almanac, abolitionists explained how they discredited the idea that abolishing slavery would ruin the country’s economy. The abolitionists explained that getting rid of slavery would stop the theft that was going on between slaves and slaveholders and actually increase profit, which would help the economy. On page 44 it is explains that cotton is a major product that slaveholders have slaves working on. The slaves would steal a lot of this cotton causing loss of money. On page 36, it explains that getting rid of slavery would force the slaves to now work for their own money and benefits, which would open up more jobs and more spending, which all helps the economy. And lastly one other argument that was made throughout The American Anti-Slavery Almanac was that slaveholders would no longer have to pay their slaves and could now make and sell more products. All of these arguments come to one conclusion, which is that the abolitionists stressed that with the abolition of slavery will bring a better economy for both the slaveholders and slaves. How to cite American Anti Slavery, Papers American Anti Slavery Free Essays As we saw In the previous lecture, many Americans In the nineteenth century believed that slavery was justified by the Bible. Explain how The American Anti- Slavery Almanac, a well-known abolitionist publication whose authors attacked slavery, tried to discredit the notion that Christianity Justified slavery. | 200 words I 50 points. We will write a custom essay sample on American Anti Slavery or any similar topic only for you Order Now Throughout The American Anti-Slavery Almanac, abolitionists wrote that the Christians did many anti-slavery acts. On of the biggest arguments was the â€Å"negro seat† found In churches. On page 21, It states that churches â€Å"publicly deride and blasphemously criticize† this idea of the â€Å"negro seat† in churches. It also states that â€Å"Every church that has a â€Å"negro seat† keeps posted upon its walls a standing criticism on God’s workmanship, a public proclamation of their contempt for It. † The church finds it wrong that many churches have designated seats for negros. â€Å"Why single out certain seats for them and make them sit in them? On page 37, it states â€Å"According to the Bible, oppression maketh a man mad; but according to the objector, top oppressing him and yon make him madder! That inflicting wrongs upon a person is calculated to exasperate him against the inflictor, everyone one knows,: and that the way to soothe his exasperation, make him forget his wrongs, and fill him with kind feelings towards you. † This explain s that the wrong doings to a slave is against the Bible. God looks at everyone as his brothers and sisters. On Page 38, â€Å"Since robbing a man of his liberty and earnings, makes him your enemy, the first step to be aken in making him your friends, is to stop doing that which made him your enemy. The Bible gives this commonsense direction to all who wish to make others their friends. † 2. As we saw in the previous lecture, many Americans in the nineteenth century believed that slavery was an economic necessity. They argued that Its abolishing would ruin the country’s economy. Explain how The American Anti-Slavery Almanac tried to discredit this notion. 200 words | 50 points. Throughout The American Ann-slavery Almanac, abolitionists explained how they iscredited the idea that abolishing slavery would ruin the countrys economy. The abolitionists explained that getting rid of slavery would stop the theft that was going on between slaves and slaveholders and actually increase profit, which would help the economy. On page 44 it is explains that cotton is a major product that sl aveholders have slaves working on. The slaves would steal a lot of this cotton causing loss of money. On page 36, it explains that getting rid of slavery would force he slaves to now work for their own money and benefits, which would open up more lobs and more spending, which all helps the economy. And lastly one other argument that was made throughout The American Anti-Slavery Almanac was that slaveholders would no longer have to pay their slaves and could now make and sell more products. All of these arguments come to one conclusion, which is that the abolitionists stressed tnat wltn tne a 01 t D I Ion 0T slavery wlll orlnga netter economy Tor Dotn tn slaveholders and slaves. How to cite American Anti Slavery, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Role of Institutional Pharmacy Technicians free essay sample

Medication orders In an institutional pharmacy medication cannot be dispensed without a prescription. Medications will be listed in the patient chart, filled, billed, and then delivered to the patient. The prescription order could be handed directly to the pharmacy, faxed in, sent via the institution computer system, or picked up by the technician from varying sources within the institution. All medication orders must have the patient information including the patients name, room/bed number, hospital id number and date of birth. The medication must also have certain information to be processed such as the name of the medication, dosage, administration, route, a signature from the prescriber, and the date and hour the prescription was written. These orders must be reviewed for completeness by the technicians which still leaves the prescription in an unverified status until the pharmacist can review them as well making them a verified medication order. Institutional and non- institutional Institutional pharmacies fill and verify medication orders while non-institutional pharmacies fill prescriptions that are normally brought in by the patient. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Institutional Pharmacy Technicians or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Institutional pharmacies take care of patients within the facility they practice in such as hospitals and nursing homes. Non-institutional pharmacies will fill prescriptions for patients that are outside of the institutions on a regular basis. Technicians that are employed in an institutional pharmacy work with several distribution systems for specific patients while technicians that are employed in a non-institutional pharmacy mostly repackage medications for many different patients. Institutional technicians deal in sterile and aseptic techniques, cytotoxins and chemo drugs, and a variety of automatic dispensing systems (Johnston, M. (with Frank, C. , Luke, R. ), 2006). Patient issues within an institutional pharmacy Pharmacy technicians in an institutional pharmacy do not have a lot of personal contact with the patients. They mainly deal with patient billing and patient information. Technicians could deal with patient issues through participating on fomulary committees and gathering and evaluating patient statistics. Some patient issues that might arise within this type of pharmacy environment could be an allergic reaction to a medication that is being prescribed through a medication order. Because the pharmacy technician did not follow through with the pharmacist and double check the patient information against the medication name the patient could be prescribed a medication that they are allergic to. These issues are would be unique to an institutional pharmacy because they are the ones who obtain the patient information along with the prescription information that is to be issued by the doctor to the patient within the facility. The doctor in this case prescribed a basic medication that the patient happened to be allergic to instead of the compounded mixture of the medication that is less potent and the patient is not allergic to. This mistake can be avoided within the institutional pharmacy if the technician follows procedure and give the pharmacist the medication order for final verification of the prescribed medication so that he can check it against the patient information and the original orders. Institutional pharmacies offer services that move beyond illing prescriptions. They provide consulting and technology services while working with the patient to automate paperwork, aggregate resident data and actionable data used for improving resident care (Remedi, 2010). The institutional pharmacy market is projected to grow revenues from $13 billion in 2007 to $20 billion by 2012. They provide accurate, efficient and cost-effective pharmaceutical care to residents in the face of rising healthcare costs while providing high-quality resident care (Remedi, 2010). Shelbye Farmer-Vitez References: United States Department of Labor. (2010). Occupational outlook handbook,2010-11 edition. Retrieved from http://www. bls. gov/oco/ocos325. htm. Retrieved 4/21/11. Remedi. (2010). Remedi senior care. Retrieved from http://remedirx. com/newsroom/pharmacyoverview. aspx. Retrieved 4/21/11. Johnston, M. (with Frank, C. , Luke, R. ). (2006). The pharmacy technician series: Fundamentals of pharmacy practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Retrieved 4/21/11.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Elijah Muhammad, the Leader of the Nation of Islam

Elijah Muhammad, the Leader of the Nation of Islam For more than forty years, human rights activist and Muslim minister, Elijah Muhammad stood at the helm of the Nation of Islam- a religious organization that combined the teachings of Islam with a strong emphasis on morality and self-sufficiency for African-Americans. Muhammad, a devout believer in black nationalism once even said, â€Å"The Negro wants to be everything but himself[...] He wants to integrate with the white man, but he cannot integrate with himself or with his own kind. The Negro wants to lose his identity because he does not know his own identity.† Muhammad Rejects the Jim Crow South Muhammad was born Elijah Robert Poole on October 7, 1897 in Sandersville, GA. His father, William, was a sharecropper and his mother, Mariah, was a domestic worker. Muhammad workforce in Cordele, GA with his 13 siblings. By the fourth grade, he had stopped attending school and began working a variety of jobs in sawmills and brickyards. In 1917, Muhammad married Clara Evans. Together, the couple had eight children. By 1923, Muhammad had grown tired of the Jim Crow South saying, â€Å"I seen enough of the white man’s brutality to last me 26,000 years.† Muhammad moved his wife and children to Detroit as part of the great migration and found work in an automobile factory. In Detroit, Muhammad was drawn to the teachings of Marcus Garvey and became a member of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. The Nation of Islam In 1931, Muhammad met Wallace D. Fard, a salesman who had begun teaching African-Americans in the Detroit area about Islam. Fard’s teachings connected the principles of Islam with black nationalism- ideas that were attractive to Muhammad. Soon after their meeting, Muhammad converted to Islam and changed his name from Robert Elijah Poole to Elijah Muhammad. In 1934, Fard disappeared and Muhammad assumed leadership of the Nation of Islam.  Muhammad established Final Call to Islam, a news publication that helped build the membership of the religious organization. In addition, Muhammad University of Islam was founded to educate children. The Temple of Islam Following the disappearance of Fard, Muhammad took a group of the Nation of Islam’s followers to Chicago while the organization broke off into other factions of Islam. Once in Chicago, Muhammad founded Temple of Islam No. 2, establishing the town as the headquarters of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad began preaching the philosophy of the Nation of Islam and began attracting African-Americans in urban areas to the religious organization. Soon after making Chicago the national headquarters for the Nation of Islam, Muhammad traveled to Milwaukee where he established Temple No. 3 and Temple No. 4 in Washington D.C. Muhammad’s success was halted when he was imprisoned in 1942 for refusing to respond to a World War II  draft. While imprisoned, Muhammad continued to spread the teachings of the Nation of Islam to inmates. When Muhammad was released in 1946, he continued to lead the Nation of Islam, claiming that he was Allah’s messenger and that Fard was in fact, Allah. By 1955, the Nation of Islam had expanded to include 15 temples and by 1959, there 50 temples in 22 states. Until his death in 1975, Muhammad continued to grow the Nation of Islam from a small religious organization to one that had multiple streams of income and had gained national prominence. Muhammad published two books, Message to the Black Man in 1965 and How to Eat to Live in 1972. The organization’s publication, Muhammad Speaks, was in circulation and at the height of the Nation of Islam’s popularity, the organization boasted a membership of an estimated 250,000.   Muhammad also mentored men such as Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan and several of his sons, who were also devout members of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad died of congestive heart failure in 1975 in Chicago. Sources Muhammad, Elijah. How to Eat to Live - Book One: From God In Person, Master Fard Muhammad. Paperback, Reprint edition, Secretarius Memps Publications, August 30, 2006. Muhammad, Elijah. Message to the Blackman in America. Paperback, Secretarius Memps Publications, September 5, 2006.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Flyting - Definition and Examples of Flyting in English

Flyting s of Flyting in English A verbal slanging match: a ritualized form of invective in which insults are exchanged. Its as if a verbal space has been cordoned off, says Ruth Wajnryb. Inside this space a sanctioned kind of swearing can take place . . . where taboos are knowingly and legitimately flouted, providing a linguistic and psychological safety valve for a public letting off of steam (Expletive Deleted: A Good Look at Bad Language, 2005). Etymology: from the Old English, argue. Examples and Observations: Although the language is often gross, even grotesque and astonishingly scatological, there is also a certain element of play. . . . [Flyting] is the verbal equivalent of virtuoso sword-play. . . .[In the farce] Gammer Gurtons Needle (acted 1566) . . . we find the new idioms of what the devil, how a murrain [plague], go to, Fie shitten knave and out upon thee, the pox, bawdy bitch, that dirty bastard, the whoreson dolt, for Gods sake, thou shitten knave and that dirty shitten lout. The violent altercations between Grandma Gurton and Dame Chat show the closest affiliations to flyting:Gammer​Thou wert as good as kiss my tail,Thou slut, thou cut, thou rakes, thou jakes,[You whore, you jade, you bawd, you shit-house]will not shame make thee hide thee?ChatThou skald, thou bald, thou rotten, thou glutton,[You scold, you hairless thing, you rubbish, you pig]I will no longer chide theeBut I will teach thee to keep home.​(G. Hughes, Swearing: A Social History of Foul Language, Oa ths and Profanity in English. Blackwell, 1991) The Slanging Match in Henry the Fourth Part One Seventeenth-century playwrights regularly provided their audiences with such contests, knowing that they would be well received. There is the well-known exchange in Shakespeares Henry the Fourth Part One (2:iv) between prince Hal and Falstaff. Hal comments on Falstaffs size and weight, calling him: clay braind guts, though knotty-pated fool, thou whoreson, obscene, greasy tallow catch. He also points out that Falstaff is: a bed-presser, a horse-back-breaker, a huge hill of flesh. Falstaff retaliates by remarking on Hals thinness: you starveling, you eel-skin, you dried neats tongue, you bulls pizzle, you stockfish, you tailors yard, you sheath, you bow case, you bile standing tuck.​(Leslie Dunkling, Dictionary of Epithets and Terms of Address. Routledge, 1990) Playing the Dozens The tradition of ritualized swearing, very much like flyting, continues in a number of places in the modern world. It is perhaps most notable in black American communities, where it is called sounding or signifying or playing the dozens. Variations of this kind of flyting provide social distinctions between in-group and out-group members. But they also act as lyrical cornerstones for much of the anthemic rap (particularly gangsta rap) that defines gang neighbourhoods, including communities of young people from other ethnic backgrounds who admire gang values. . .This style is also called capping and cracking on and is found as well in urban Aboriginal English in Australia.(Ruth Wajnryb, Expletive Deleted: A Good Look at Bad Language. Free Press, 2005)

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Principles of Architectural Structures Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Principles of Architectural Structures - Essay Example The design also encompasses forces and movements as a result of temperature, cracking, creep, as well as imposed loads (Dabby & Bedi 2012, p.5). The structural design should also make sure that the design is buildable practically within the allowable material’s manufacturing tolerances. The design of the structure should also give room for fitting and functionality of systems such as smoke extraction, air conditioning, lighting among others. Structural design, in general, has a role of making the structure suitable for living in all dimensions. Various components of a structure are used in enhancing the suitability of the structure. This is brought about by the choice of materials to build these components, design as well as other basic processes (Bach 2009, p.9). They are done technically to impact a certain aspect that will help the structure to achieve the required standards as discussed in the document below. The document also addresses the use of reinforced concrete in solving various structural essentials. Reinforced concrete  is basically  a composite material whereby concrete that has relatively low ductility, and tensile strength are counteracted by the reinforcement inclusion with higher ductility and tensile strength. This as an aspect in return makes the reinforced concrete very strong and hence a suitable building material. Reinforced concrete  can be classified among  the types of building materials. The architecture needs to be keen in choosing the construction materials. The choice of building materials should be on the basis of the required properties of the structure. In this scenario, reinforced concrete will be used to solve the problem of the aspects such as thermal and acoustic performance, durability, fire resistance, and load resistivity among others (Emmitt et al. 2004, p.37). In terms of load resistivity reinforced concrete outdo all the other building materials such as wood and steel. This